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大黄蜂强夯机的优点和正确施工步骤

网址:http://www.sddhfjx.cn/   发布日期:2021-11-30 关注次数:
现在的建筑工程的地基都需要对松土进行压实处理,也就都离不开打夯,小的建筑工程夯实地基用小的电动打夯机就能完成,较大的建筑工程通常对地基都有着硬性的指标,需要夯实到某种程度才算合格,这样就对打夯机有了某些指标上的要求,因此就需要用到强夯机。
At present, the foundation of construction projects needs to compact the loose soil, which is inseparable from tamping. For small construction projects, tamping the foundation can be completed with a small electric rammer. For large construction projects, there are usually hard indicators for the foundation, which need to be tamped to a certain extent before it is qualified. In this way, there are some requirements for the rammer, Therefore, a dynamic compaction machine is needed.
强夯法即大力夯实法,又称动力固结法。是利用大型履带式强夯机将8-30吨的重锤从6-30米高度自由落下,对土进行大力夯实,迅速提高地基的承载力及压缩模量,形成比较均匀的密实的地基,在地基一定内改变了地基土的孔隙分布。
The dynamic compaction method is the vigorous compaction method, also known as the dynamic consolidation method. The large crawler dynamic compactor is used to drop 8-30 tons of heavy hammer freely from the height of 6-30 meters, vigorously tamp the soil, quickly improve the bearing capacity and compression modulus of the foundation, form a relatively uniform and dense foundation, and change the pore distribution of the foundation soil within a certain range of the foundation.
强夯法施工已广泛运用到高速公路铁路,机场核电站大工业区港口填海等基础加固工程。优点工期短效果好造价低。
Dynamic compaction method has been widely used in highway, railway, airport, nuclear power plant, large industrial zone, port reclamation and other foundation reinforcement projects. The utility model has the advantages of short construction period, good effect and low cost.
强夯法适用于处理碎石土砂土低饱和度的粉土与粘性土湿陷性黄土素填土和杂填土等地基。强夯施工前,应在施工现场有代表性的场地上选取一个或几个试验区,进行试夯或试验性施工。试验区数量应根据建筑场地复杂程度建设规模及建筑类型确定。
The dynamic compaction method is suitable for the treatment of gravel soil, sandy soil, silt and clay with low saturation, collapsible loess plain fill and miscellaneous fill. Before dynamic compaction construction, one or several test areas shall be selected on the representative site of the construction site for trial compaction or experimental construction. The number of test areas shall be determined according to the complexity of the construction site, construction scale and building type.
强夯施工的优点有哪些?
What are the advantages of dynamic compaction?
施工工艺操作简单;适用土质范围广,加固效果显著,可取得较高的承载力,一般地基强度可提高2~5倍;压缩性可降低2~10倍,加固影响可达6~10m;工效高,施工速度快(一般设备每月可加固5000~10000m地基),较换上回填和桩基可缩短工期一半;节省加固原材料;施工费用低,节省投资,比换土回填节省费用,与预制桩加固地基相比,可节省投资 等。
The construction process is simple; It is applicable to a wide range of soil, has remarkable reinforcement effect, can obtain high bearing capacity, and the general foundation strength can be increased by 2 ~ 5 times; The compressibility can be reduced by 2 ~ 10 times, and the reinforcement effect can reach 6 ~ 10m; High work efficiency and fast construction speed (general equipment can reinforce 5000 ~ 10000m foundation every month), which can shorten the construction period by half compared with backfilling and pile foundation; Save reinforcement raw materials; The construction cost is low and the investment is saved. Compared with soil replacement and backfilling, it can save investment compared with precast pile foundation reinforcement.
浅析强夯法的三种不同加固机理
Analysis on three different reinforcement mechanisms of dynamic compaction method
动力固结:当强夯法应用于处理细颗粒饱和黏土时,其加固机理则是动力固结理论。强夯时,巨大的冲击力在土中产生很大的应力波,破坏土体的原有结构,使土体局部发生液化并产生许多裂隙,排水通道使孔隙水顺利逸出,待超孔隙水压力消散后,土体固结。由于软土的触变性,强度得到恢复。
Dynamic consolidation: when dynamic consolidation method is applied to treat fine-grained saturated clay, its reinforcement mechanism is dynamic consolidation theory. During dynamic compaction, the huge impact force produces a large stress wave in the soil, destroys the original structure of the soil, causes local liquefaction of the soil and produces many cracks, and the drainage channel makes the pore water escape smoothly. After the excess pore water pressure dissipates, the soil is consolidated. Due to the thixotropy of soft soil, the strength is restored.
动力密实:采用强夯法加固多孔隙粗颗粒非饱和黏土是基于动力密实的机理,即冲击型动力荷载,使土体中的孔隙减小,土体变得密实,从而提高地基土强度。非饱和土的夯实过程,就是土中的气相(空气)被挤出的过程,其夯实变形主要是由于土颗粒的相对位移引起。
Dynamic compaction: the consolidation of porous coarse-grained unsaturated clay by dynamic compaction is based on the mechanism of dynamic compaction, that is, impact dynamic load, which reduces the pores in the soil and makes the soil dense, so as to improve the strength of foundation soil. The compaction process of unsaturated soil is the process that the gas phase (air) in the soil is squeezed out. The compaction deformation is mainly caused by the relative displacement of soil particles.
动力置换:动力置换可分整式置换和桩式置换。整式置换是采用强夯将碎石整体挤入淤泥中,其作用机理类似于换土垫层。桩式置换是通过强夯将碎石填入土中,部分碎石桩(或墩)间隔地夯入软土中,形成桩式(墩式)的碎石桩(墩),其作用机理类似于振冲法形成的碎石桩,整体形成复合地基。
Dynamic replacement: dynamic replacement can be divided into integral replacement and pile replacement. Integral replacement uses dynamic compaction to squeeze the gravel into the sludge, and its action mechanism is similar to that of soil replacement cushion. Pile replacement is to fill the gravel into the soil through dynamic compaction, and some gravel piles (or piers) are tamped into the soft soil at intervals to form pile (pier) gravel piles (piers). Its action mechanism is similar to the gravel piles formed by vibroflotation method, forming a composite foundation as a whole.
强夯的正确施工步骤有哪些?
What are the correct construction steps of dynamic compaction?
认真调查,确保强夯场地范围内的地下无物。清出地表土,清理范围为路基坡脚外2~3m。整平后在场地上标出一遍夯点的位置,点位偏差控制在±20cm范围内,并测量场地高程。
Carefully investigate to ensure that there is nothing underground within the dynamic compaction site. Clear the surface soil within 2 ~ 3M outside the subgrade slope toe. After leveling, mark the position of one tamping point on the site, control the point position deviation within ± 20cm, and measure the site elevation.
起重机就位,使夯锤对准夯点位置,测量夯前锤顶高程。
Put the crane in place, align the rammer with the ramming point, and measure the top elevation of the hammer before ramming.
将夯锤起吊到预定高度,待夯锤脱钩自由下落后,放下吊钩,测量锤顶高程。若发现因坑底倾斜而造成夯锤歪斜时,及时将坑底整平。
Lift the rammer to the predetermined height. After the rammer is decoupled and falls freely, put down the hook and measure the top elevation of the hammer. If the rammer is found to be skewed due to the inclination of the pit bottom, the pit bottom shall be leveled in time.
重复三项操作,完成一个夯点的夯击,即每个夯点夯6击。除满足后2击平均夯沉量不大于50mm外,还要求总夯沉量不小于试夯总夯沉量。
Repeat three operations to complete the tamping of one tamping point, i.e. 6 tamping for each tamping point. In addition to meeting the requirement that the average tamping settlement of the last two blows shall not be greater than 50mm, the total tamping settlement shall not be less than the total tamping settlement of trial tamping.
换夯点,重复二项和四项操作,直到完成1遍全部夯点的夯击。用推土机将夯坑填平,并测量场地高程。
Change tamping points and repeat two and four operations until all tamping points are tamped once. Fill the tamping pit with bulldozer and measure the site elevation.
在规定的间隔时间后,按上述步骤逐次完成2,3,4遍夯击。
After the specified interval, complete 2, 3 and 4 times of tamping successively according to the above steps.
选用锤质量为3t落距为6m进行低能满夯2遍,将场地表层松土夯实,要求后一遍与前一遍错开半夯;后测量夯后场地高程。
Select a hammer with a mass of 3T and a falling distance of 6m for 2 times of low-energy full compaction. Loosen the soil on the surface of the site and compact it. It is required to stagger the latter one with the previous one for half compaction; Measure the site elevation after tamping.
灰土封闭。在基底地面铺设一层0.20m厚2:8灰土。施工时,石灰撒入土中,不洒水进行初拌,拌匀后应闷料8~12h,再进行洒水复拌,拌匀后即整平压实;待强度检测合格后在灰土垫层上铺设一层防渗复合土工膜。
Lime soil sealing. Lay a layer of 0.20m thick 2:8 lime soil on the base ground. During construction, lime shall be sprinkled into the soil without watering for initial mixing. After mixing, the material shall be stuffy for 8 ~ 12h, and then watered for re mixing. After mixing, it shall be leveled and compacted; After the strength test is qualified, a layer of anti-seepage composite geomembrane shall be laid on the lime soil cushion.
边坡加固。路基面下0.60m处铺设双向精编土工格栅,土工格栅每层垂直间距为0.50m,上两层沿平面铺通,其余各层深入路堤边坡宽度2.50m,格栅距边坡线的距离不小于0.10m。
Slope reinforcement. Two way fine woven geogrid shall be laid 0.60m below the subgrade surface. The vertical spacing of each layer of geogrid shall be 0.50m. The upper two layers shall be paved along the plane. The other layers shall be 2.50M deep into the embankment slope, and the distance between the grid and the slope line shall not be less than 0.10m.
强夯施工过程中应有人专门负责下列监测工作:
During dynamic compaction construction, someone shall be specially responsible for the following monitoring work:
(1)开夯前应检查夯锤重和落距,以确保单击能符合设计要求。
(1) Before tamping, the weight and falling distance of the rammer shall be checked to ensure that the click can meet the design requirements.
(2)每遍夯击前,应对夯点放线进行复核,夯完后检查夯坑位置,发现偏差及时纠正。
(2) Before each tamping, the setting out of tamping points shall be reviewed. After tamping, the position of tamping pit shall be checked, and any deviation found shall be corrected in time.
(3)按要求检查每个夯点的夯击次数和每次的夯沉量。
(3) Check the tamping times and tamping settlement of each tamping point as required.
(4)在夯击中,当发现地质条件与设计提供的数据不符时应及时会同有关部门研究处理。
(4) When the geological conditions are found to be inconsistent with the data provided by the design, it shall be studied and handled in conjunction with relevant departments in time.
(5)施工中对方案制定的工作量或要求进行改变时,应报上级主管技术部门批准后方可施工。
(5) In case of any change to the workload or requirements formulated in the scheme during construction, it shall be reported to the superior competent technical department for approval before construction.
(6)强夯施工中应在现场及时对各项参数及施工情况进行详细记录。
(6) During dynamic compaction construction, various parameters and construction conditions shall be recorded in detail on site in time.
(7)强夯过程中夯坑周围不应有过大的隆起,如有异常及时报告监理工程师,会同设计业主等部门再作处理办法。
(7) During dynamic compaction, there shall be no excessive uplift around the tamping pit. If there is any abnormality, it shall be reported to the supervising engineer in time, and the treatment method shall be made together with the design owner and other departments.
(8)夯坑应当日施工,当日推平,以防下雨泡水。
(8) The tamping pit shall be constructed and leveled on the same day to prevent rain and water.
(9)竣工验收后的强夯场地应及时投入使用,不应久置。
(9) The dynamic compaction site after completion acceptance shall be put into use in time and shall not be left for a long time.
(10)强夯竣工面应防止重型车辆碾压。
(10) The finished surface of dynamic compaction shall be prevented from rolling by heavy vehicles.
强夯法不仅能提高地基土的强度,降低其压缩性,还能改变抗振动液化的能力和清楚土的湿陷性,因此它不仅适用于处理碎石土砂土粉土黏性土杂填土和素填土地基,还常用于处理可液化砂土地基和湿陷性黄土地基。
Dynamic compaction method can not only improve the strength of foundation soil and reduce its compressibility, but also change the ability of anti vibration liquefaction and clear the collapsibility of soil. Therefore, it is not only suitable for the treatment of gravel soil, sandy soil, silt, cohesive soil miscellaneous fill and plain fill foundation, but also often used for the treatment of liquefiable sand foundation and collapsible loess foundation.
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